Bosnia was ruled by Croat Kings c. A.D. 958.
Hungarians of Magyar decent ruled Bosnia
from about 1,000 to 1,200 A.D.
Bosnians took control of the area after Magyar decline,
this kingdom fell apart by 1391, w/ the
southern part becoming Herzegovina.
Turks had control of Serbia by 1389
as a vassal principality.
Montenegro gained it's independence in 1389.
The Turks made Bosnia and Serbia a province of their empire by 1463,
but the Austo-Hungarians Empire took both in 1878 as part of the
Treaty of Berlin, which recognized Montenegrin independence.
It officially became a province of the empire in 1908.
After the Balkan Wars, in 1913 Serbia took over old Serbia and Macedonia.
The Balkan War was a trial run for the trench warfare that led to stalemate in
| W.W. II
Many Catholic, Croatian, Nazi
fled to the West w/ the aid of the U.S.,
British and Vatican intelligence services, who thought they
would be valuable in the expected war w/ the Soviets.
They also used gold and jewels they had stolen from their
victims, which was often laundered through Swiss banks.
Tito had Mikhailovich executed.
A constituent assembly
proclaimed Yugoslavia as a republic.
It became a federated republic w/ Marshal Tito
named as the head of it's Communist govt.
The 1946 post-war Yugoslavian constitution reunited
Bosnia and Herzegovina as a federated republic.
Tito followed a neutralist policy and
refused to be a puppet of the U.S.S.R.
The U.S., France and Britain were
soon sending him weapons and aid.
Tito spoke out against the Soviet
invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
By this time Tito's Yugoslavia had
become one of the biggest infantry
weapons dealers in the world.
Tito died, the govt. enacted a collective
presidency w/ a rotating succession.
Communists were forced to
renounce their control of the govt.
The Bosnia and Herzegovina Parliament
ratified a declaration of sovereignty.
In Croatia, fighting began between
the majority Croats and minority Serbs.
Serbia began to send weapons to the Croatian Serbs.
Croats clashed w/ the Yugo Army and Serb forces.
A referendum for independence was passed
by the Bosnia and Herzegovina Parliament.
Ethnic Serbs immediately began to riot.
The U.S. and EU recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bosnia's Serbs, Muslims and Croats
were now in a 3 way civil war.
The Serbs engaged in "ethnic cleansing"
in which they murdered or expelled all
non-Serbs from the territory under their control.
Serbian Pres. Slobodan Milosevic agreed to aid
Bosnia's Serbs w/ massive amounts of weapons.
Serbia and Montenegro proclaim the
"Federated Republic of Yugoslavia.
UN imposed sanctions on the
Federated Republic of Yugoslavia
in an effort to stop the fighting in Bosnia.
Serb forces surrounded and bombarded Sarajevo,
leading to a cease-fire on 2/23/94 between
Muslims and Croats who formed
an alliance on 3/18/94 to fight the
Serbs, who control 70% of the country.
The balance of power begins to
shift to the Muslim-Croat forces.
Yugoslavia claims to cut off aid to the Bosnian Serbs,
because they had rejected a plan to partition Bosnia.
Massive UN air strikes against Bosnian Serb
positions leads to a new round of peace talks.
UN votes to ease sanctions of Yugoslavia.
Muslim-Croat offensive results in major seizure
of land, forcing Bosnian Serbs to formally
accept the 49% share of land.
Serb siege of Sarajevo is lifted.
New agreements lead to formation in
principle of autonomous regions in Bosnia.
Serbs receive 49% of territory.
Dayton Accord is agreed to.
Dayton Accord is signed in Paris
and leaders of Croatia and Bosnia, it calls
$5 billion in reconstruction aid.
NATO sends 60,000 troops (20,000 U.S.)
in to police the region.
UN War Crimes Tribunal convenes in the
Netherlands to try those responsible for
Yugoslavian Civil War crimes against humanity.
For the first time, rape alone
is considered a war crime.
Bosnian Serb President, Radovan Karadzic
is indicted for war crimes.
Under NATO pressure
Karadzic resigns power to a deputy,
Biljana Plavsic, but is not arrested.
Bosnian elections result in a
3 person collective presidency.
The UN lifts sanctions against Yugoslavia
after elections are held in Bosnia.
Milosevic refuses to accept results
of opposition victories in local elections,
leading to massive protests.
NATO force is down to 30,000 (8,000 U.S.)
troops and has an 18 month mandate.
Non-Communists take office in Belgrade and other cities.
Milosevic has himself inaugurated as
president of Yugoslavia to get around the
prohibition from 3rd. term as Serbian President.
Yugoslavian troops kill leader of Kosovo
independence movement and his family.
NATO Makes a Major Decision On Control Of disputed Land.
NATO Air Strikes Begin.