717 and 791
Muslim forces invaded Spain,
Italy and the south
of France under directive to spread their religion.
First by Christian crusade dispatched
from Europe to
Christian victory at the battle of Al
Uqba in Spain.
St. Louis of France's leads a disastrous campaign in
The fall of Granada and leads to expulsion of Moors
from Spain by
Spanish kings Ferdinand and Isabella.
Ends almost eight centuries of Muslim rule in the south of
where caliphs had established a seemingly undefeatable stronghold
and exerted enormous cultural influence on the rest of Western Europe
through their mathematicians, architects, translators and artists.
The biggest threat to Europe comes when the Ottoman Turks under
Suleyman the Magnificent, who took
Suleyman arrived at the gates of Vienna, Austria.
Move galvanized a united reaction of Europe
under emperor Charles V of Germany.
Ottoman Turks were defeated at the battle of Lepanto
Writer Miguel de Cervantes, author of "Don Quixote," lost an
Muslim forces lifted the siege of Vienna.
Ottomans were defeated by Austria, losing Hungary
under the provisions of the
treaty of Passarowich.
French forces ousted the Muslims who had ruled
Algeria for 313 yrs.
France invaded Tunisia and imposed peace under
the treaty of Bardo.
Mulay Muhammad was defeated by Spain.
France occupied Morocco, which became a
protectorate in 1904.